59 0 obj There are a number of issues regarding genetic patents. 0000005966 00000 n <>stream 0000027178 00000 n Scientists opposed to gene patents contend that numerous patents obstruct research because of the need to license or pay for patented technologies. 0000002388 00000 n h�b```b``)a`c`��� �� �@Q��Cs�+��T�. %%EOF endobj 46 0 obj 2. 45 37 <>stream @�Q�Dș5H�H�1e�9iEn4u���t%�R�Z6�`��wC�B��(�������~��6�S�x.t�k�b���9G}�{>�P��� �/��3)�&o���}�1�Ч�Sf�ߙ��� 0000000016 00000 n endobj 0000006919 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n H�tT[��0��)|���E'q.P����g�����M�T�|8��p8�����vѷ\i!O�Y���74��lpŪϑ� �T�@`bN��s���U����a$a�'_�U�+�q"$_cȶHI�q���K�|._��q?�B�B���������D�&�so�L���˽���hys��`ߐRg��E#�W�- �΄p5ߤ�|�M��C���QK�璧tt�t�3�C�8O�� �Ed�ğQ��n�[:��2�A��J�D H�lT�N�0��+rl/�v�&�&$6�]�1> �MM����5� ^{��?��/`��`�f��L�n��m��ܥ�@��|�q�pף�(*`Ƹ�q�-)^�3���^�y3y۹+�9߈=��URC��T * Hinders research. startxref 0000022308 00000 n b}���$��L(��t��9�����1䚰[email protected]�4�7�a|�e p;�x���=g���)�r����#���! They are also able to do this as a result of possible investment in patents, which is outlined above. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. 0000002652 00000 n 0000005467 00000 n It could hinder research. 0000033949 00000 n Once a patent has been granted for a gene, the company with that patent will be stable and secure financially. 0000007943 00000 n This allows the company to continue on, and focus its efforts towards the research, rather than racing with competition to present their work or findings to the public first. Because these patents essentially provide companies ‘rights’ to genes, companies are pushes further to attempt to innovate and work harder. endstream This means that a business would own a patent for up to 20 years on a specific gene. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[81.0 646.991 284.328 665.009]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 0000003439 00000 n <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[81.0 617.094 136.86 629.106]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 62 0 obj <>stream 57 0 obj endobj The patents give Myriad Genetics exclusive rights to conduct diagnostic tests on these genes. 1. endobj endobj <>stream 0000001036 00000 n H��T[n�0���������K8G�W���ЍY�~��A;�Ğ��Ǹ} �[P�q����0Y ;��: X�d���'a��I�*�8�o�t�`1���R��;qiցc�2�⥩Ej�6jp=wE͛����V)�*J�7����\%�b��(Ah��I�,��m��!R9 @b�a�2^y��i�j�Of�H���]i�ѓK���x��G5b��-�=� ����\�$e��w(�_��ͬ�ٜڑ�������yM[4w�1꧓�A������q }m߂��"�h�{d\��O�ӴkZ6�ILT��-���,e����7���o׵ ��`. endobj A company with a patent on a certain gene has rights to the research and testing on that gene, and so all testing must go though the company with the patent, potentially delaying results. endobj /=��ꈹDĠS �&��\!�$���z2[O 0v�7n�Π��'/ɒR�06�6��f�H��f�M�M=RV- avu]��ĨW��H�I+Dn�S�:#��,E#o.5�S+9b���C�W�o�G�jŋ�k�- endobj 0000004937 00000 n endobj endobj 52 0 obj <>stream SY0sV8T��Sk�!�QQV��R^1c%Mɂ�t�JW����X5d��︣�2n��ˑ��=�1��3EHY^^��ç{r�����j�\�9�vYu�j�� �S�x��[$��o�^ %PDF-1.7 %���� <>stream 0000001508 00000 n Individuals and companies alike are able to invest in patented genes. The Cons of Gene Patenting. Many companies rely on this source of financial assistance from their investors, as it often takes hundreds of millions of dollars to introduce new drugs. Over time, these costs may become too much, and researchers. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[350.256 211.794 530.676 223.806]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj Because patents provide the owner with exclusive rights to the gene, where it prevents any other party from making, using or selling the invention described, in which this case are genetic sequences, monopolisation is a very real possibility. 0000008600 00000 n 81 0 obj 48 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[458.72 108.3415 510.792 116.3495]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 45 0 obj Gene patents fall under intellectual property rights. This means that they are now providing financial support for the research and development of these genes and hopefully in the future, useful innovations. 51 0 obj endobj <<>> �N�hG_����|D����&ce�8���?v��b�bnA�NE.f�x�"w ٦ڎ���j~ )�"| 0000014270 00000 n H�|��jA���s�BQ%�7���������� 8����xGN-��^�'��1(H��}nw7,pZ�ݏ! t���7%����o��&>{ #����4a����6- endobj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[461.052 617.094 549.0 629.106]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> Therefore, human dignity should prevent anyone from owning patents over Since patents give the owners intellectual property rights on the patented genome sequence for 17 to 20 years, many people fear that gene patents hinder research. endstream �)���yvA��xB�{��4�#9��JF;d��]��C�[t�` ��% 58 0 obj 0000001884 00000 n Furthermore, if the company refuses to allow other companies to work with a certain gene. 0000022834 00000 n 0000003174 00000 n <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 42 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> 0000032451 00000 n endobj 55 0 obj endobj <>stream H��T�n�P��+�2�Lg��J`�]�TR*$���w��5D <> <<2CA7EC7186A3B2110A004036E660FF7F>]/Prev 167094>> �~{��,ɾ`�GL%5�'G!B+L��F�V+�U��i5 �N�����\�V�u���T7/\l��b�k��7�(R�U�I kaQ���O�2��|)Sy}�o=�합>?�z������Y���SzY�p/�Eg��0 endobj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[81.0 154.941 238.428 163.95]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> e��صg�.ϴK+���u�z�Z�i�kN�3�g�eV��f�� � ��[email protected]���h> H+�%XD�������]�o�\��Ce��[L�r��7�l�ü��A�����8&5̵~����@�A���B�n�5�\T��~4d`�b��X ���%�^� F�5�\$�>_�������[��l �����H�00u~Ҍ@� <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[243.264 230.364 430.572 242.376]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> H��T�J�@}߯��3�w(B/���� endstream Ethical and moral arguments against human gene patents are based on the premise that the human genome is qualitatively different from other naturally occurring things, and even distinct from the DNA of other plants and animals. Arguments For and Against Genetic Patents. 0000004422 00000 n 0000007410 00000 n 54 0 obj �SQn 0000032269 00000 n 56 0 obj 0000001487 00000 n For example, patents on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene variants, which have been linked to inherited breast and ovarian cancers, belong to Myriad Genetics. Companies may decide against allowing other companies to work with these genes, which may lead to a monopoly, potentially create a secretive culture among the companies, Patents may slow down and hinder advances in science because it would cost additional funds and become inefficient as the researchers try to contact the respective patent owners.