The lowest amounts of water vapor (0 centimeters) appear in yellow, and the highest amounts (6 centimeters) appear in dark blue. Other sources of atmospheric water include combustion, respiration, volcanic eruptions, the transpiration of plants, and various other biological and geological processes. What is the maximum and minimum distance for the Earth that is compatible with life? Water vapour is important for a number of different reasons, but its presence in the atmosphere is one of the most important. However, water vapor is consistently the commonest volcanic gas; as a rule, it comprises more than 60% of total emissions during a subaerial eruption.[35]. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. When water vapor condenses onto a surface, a net warming occurs on that surface. Water vapor is the most potent greenhouse gas owing to the presence of the hydroxyl bond which strongly absorbs in the infra-red region of the light spectrum. The vapour pressure formed from this solution is lowered by the addition of the solute. The presence of water vapor has been detected in the atmospheres of all seven extraterrestrial planets in the solar system, the Earth's Moon,[45] and the moons of other planets,[which?] In order for hydrogen to form water in any physical state, it must combine with oxygen. Water vapor is the gas phase of water, and is invisible. [43] This energy will be released to a local oppositely charged region, in the form of lightning. Under persistent condensation or deposition, cloud droplets or snowflakes form, which precipitate when they reach a critical mass. Also, a net condensation of water vapor occurs on surfaces when the temperature of the surface is at or below the dew point temperature of the atmosphere. Its contribution to the pressure, increases as its concentration increases. Indeed, the versatility of water as a solvent is essential to living organisms. "[50] Scientists studying Mars hypothesize that if water moves about the planet, it does so as vapor. In the US, the National Weather Service measures the actual rate of evaporation from a standardized "pan" open water surface outdoors, at various locations nationwide. As the temperature rises the proportion of water vapor in the air increases, and its buoyancy will increase. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Sublimation accounts for the slow mid-winter disappearance of ice and snow at temperatures too low to cause melting. Transforming thermal energy into mechanical energy requires an upper and a lower temperature level, as well as a working medium which shuttles forth and back between both. The presence of water vapor in the air naturally dilutes or displaces the other air components as its concentration increases. "Water Vapor, Possible Comets, Found Orbiting Star", 11 July 2001, http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=lyman-alpha-hygrometer1, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Convective available potential energy (CAPE), https://web.archive.org/web/20080412215652/http://www.grow.arizona.edu/Grow--GrowResources.php?ResourceId=208, "swimming, pool, calculation, evaporation, water, thermal, temperature, humidity, vapor, excel", "Summary of Results of all Pool Evaporation Rate Studies", https://web.stanford.edu/~ajlucas/The%20Atmosphere%20as%20a%20Heat%20Engine.pdf, "Climate scientists confirm elusive tropospheric hot spot", "Atmospheric changes through 2012 as shown by iteratively homogenized radiosonde temperature and wind data (IUKv2)", "Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010", "Jet contrails alter average daily temperature range", "Jets' contrails contribute to heat-trapping high-level clouds". The increase in buoyancy can have a significant atmospheric impact, giving rise to powerful, moisture rich, upward air currents when the air temperature and sea temperature reaches 25 °C or above.