Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in 2002 (U.S. In southern California, this subspecies breeds on the San Luis Rey River, at Camp Pendleton, the Santa Margarita River and Pilgrim, De Luz, French, and Las Flores creeks; as well as on the Santa Ynez River. [7] Breeding occurs from near sea level on the Santa Margarita River to 800 m (2,640 ft) at the South Fork Kern River and 910 m (3,000 ft) at upper San Luis Rey River in California and to over 2,600 m (8,530 ft) in Arizona, southwestern Colorado, and north-central New Mexico. Adults have brown-olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have an indistinct white eye ring, white wing bars and a small bill. [2] Empidonax flycatchers are almost impossible to tell apart in the field so biologists use their songs to distinguish between them. endstream endobj startxref h�bbd```b``z"���[email protected]$��d�[email protected]$�,0 w���$�\"�"�&t�Eր�`��`R D2D�H�@�H�d}6s1�}L��\ �{��9�� �$� $�������_~Q&��6�ma` \?� IF� Southwestern Willow Flycatcher - Illustration by Bill Singleton Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii extimus The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is a small bird standing six inches high and weighing half an ounce.1 It has a green-gray back and wings, a white throat, a light olive breast, and a pale yellow belly.2 It is most recognized by its calls: a sharp whit! 0 The subspecies are best distinguished from each other by their songs. The call is a dry whit. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005). These neotropical birds migrate to Mexico and Central America, and in small numbers as far south as Ecuador in South America, often selecting winter habitat near water. The upper part of the bill is gray; the lower part is orangish. [9] Their winter ranges have been elucidated using mitochondrial DNA genetic studies of 172 birds sampled in winter combined with plumage coloration and morphological differences. Populations at high elevation just east of the Sierra Nevada crest but south of Modoc County are assumed to be E. t. brewsteri. Facts Summary: The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "birds" and found in the following area(s): Arizona, California, Colorado, Mexico, New Mexico, Texas, Utah. There are four subspecies of the willow flycatcher currently recognized, all of which breed in North America (including three subspecies that breed in California). They may eat some berries. The known breeding population was estimated at between 300 and 500 pairs. Willow flycatchers travel approximately 1,500–8,000 km (930–4,970 mi) each way between wintering and breeding areas.[7]. %PDF-1.5 %���� Their breeding habitat is deciduous thickets, especially willows and often near water, across the United States and southern Canada. At one time, this bird and the alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) were considered to be a single species, Traill's flycatcher. 92 0 obj <>stream They make a cup nest in a vertical fork in a shrub or tree. 70 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<068B25EFA3C4D74AA2940909F02A3D32><1F89EA98BBBFAC4FBB8EBA5E826738D3>]/Index[36 57]/Info 35 0 R/Length 144/Prev 293526/Root 37 0 R/Size 93/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream ), endangered species, and biological weed control - Can they Mix? Willow Flycatcher: Small flycatcher, brown-olive upperparts, white throat contrasting with paler breast, white to pale yellow belly and faint white eye ring. brewsteri) is the Pacific slope subspecies of the willow flycatcher. [12] It was described by Oberholser in 1932. The Great Basin/Northern Rockies subspecies of the willow flycatcher (E. t. adastus) breeds in California east of the Sierra/Cascade axis, from the Oregon border into Modoc County and possibly into northern Inyo County. The largest remaining population in California is on the South Fork Kern River, Kern County. [14] However, it's important to note that because willow flycatchers can and do breed, in some locations, within Saltcedar habitat it can serve as vital habitat in the recovery of this species.[15]. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002), and re-designated critical habitat in 2005 (U.S. endstream endobj 37 0 obj <. The southwestern willow flycatcher is a nationally identified target species of the Working Lands for Wildlife (WLFW) partnership, a collaborative approach to conserve habitat on working lands. %%EOF Phillips in 1948. Although they’re common across the United States, the Southwestern subspecies is federally endangered. There has been very little study of E. t. adastus in California. They wait on a perch near the top of a shrub and fly out to catch insects in flight, also sometimes picking insects from foliage while hovering. [3] The binomial commemorates the Scottish zoologist Thomas Stewart Traill.