Sugar is made of covalent bonds between nonmetals - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. imaginable degree, area of Water has a special type of covalent bond called a polar covalent bond. This type of compound is the result of atoms, usually from nonmetal elements, sharing electrons. 'Co' means share and 'valent' refers to valence electrons. What are the rules for naming covalent compounds? Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Anyone can earn Properties of covalent compounds include: Simple covalent compound names are based on number of each element in the compound and element placement on the periodic table. For example, a triangle is a shape with three sides; an octopus has eight legs. Remove the last syllable of the element name and add '-ide.'. Uneven sharing happens when one atom is more electronegative than the other. Hydrogen is an exception to this rule in that hydrogen only needs two electrons to have a full valence shell. What are some examples of covalent compounds? Next time you're in the kitchen and have a moment to spare, sprinkle some sugar on a dark surface and make some observations about this common, tasty covalent compound. Covalent compounds are quite common, they are in the air we breathe, the gas we use to fuel our cars, the water we drink and even the food we eat. Typically, a molecular formula begins with the nonmetal that is closest to the lower left corner of the periodic table, except that hydrogen is almost never written first (H 2 O is the prominent exception). These electrons are involved in bonding. These electrons are concentrated in between the two chlorine atoms, locked into position by magnetic attraction. What is the name of the covalent compound Cl2O? This isn't always the case however, as some atoms are more electronegative than others. The shared valence electrons between two nonmetal atoms is called a covalent bond. There is only one of it, so it gets a 'mono-' prefix - the ending '-gen' is dropped and '-ide' is added. You probably noticed that the name of each element appears in the name of the compound, but that the name may be slightly modified. just create an account. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. These are the specific rules for naming binary compounds: A note about prefixes: When using prefixes, the 'o' or the 'a' at the end of a prefix is usually dropped when the word following the prefix begins with another vowel. Select a subject to preview related courses: You might recognize many of these prefixes from common things! Only atoms that have exactly the same electron affinity can share electrons equally in this type of compound. There are two nitrogens, so they get the prefix 'di-' and together are called dinitrogen. MOLECULAR FORMULAS. CO2, H2 O and CCl4 are all types of simple covalent compounds. The shared electrons spend most of their time swarming the fluorine atom, resulting in an uneven distribution of charge. The second element is named by taking the stem of the element name and adding the suffix -ide.A system of numerical prefixes is used to specify the number of atoms in a molecule. There is only one sulfur, so it doesn't get a prefix. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Let's follow the naming rules and name some compounds: N2 O:N, nitrogen, is in group 15, and O, oxygen, is in group 16, so the nitrogen gets listed first. Before we begin, take a couple breaths. Create an account to start this course today. To name the first element, simply add a prefix to the name to indicate the number of that element present. Hydrogen fluoride is an example of a simple covalent compound that has a dipole. 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