Chicago disbanded its criminal investigative division in 1864, as did Boston in 1870, and New York City suffered major scandals in 1877—all as a consequence of corruption. Although watchmen were paid a fee in both Boston and New York, most officers in colonial America did not receive a salary but were paid by private citizens, as were their English counterparts. This socially constructive form of vigilantism—lawlessness on behalf of lawfulness—and the question of when and where it degenerated into rank mob rule have been popular topics in American historiography. The first American police department ... There’s a reliance upon force that goes beyond what is necessary to accomplish police duty," says Holmes. The first police department in the United States was established in New York City in 1844 (it was officially organized in 1845). The United States inherited England’s Anglo-Saxon common law and its system of social obligation, sheriffs, constables, watchmen, and stipendiary justice. In cities, increasing urbanization rendered the night-watch system completely useless as communities got too big. Although watchmen were paid a fee in both Boston and New York, most officers in colonial America In the South, however, the economics that drove the creation of police forces were centered not on the protection of shipping interests but on the preservation of the slavery system. Boston was a large shipping commercial center, and … Eventually, the political, economic, and social dominance of Americans of English and Dutch extraction was eroded. For example, businessmen in the late 19th century had both connections to politicians and an image of the kinds of people most likely to go on strike and disrupt their workforce. The police established intimate relations with neighbourhoods and neighbourhood leaders and initially did not even wear uniforms. In 1877 three of London’s four chief inspectors of the detective branch were found guilty of corruption; that scandal led to the branch’s abolition and its reorganization the following year as the CID. In part because of an ideological commitment to local control over most institutions, police power in the United States became the province of state and local governments, and each city established its own police department. Early policemen “didn’t want to wear badges because these guys had bad reputations to begin with, and they didn’t want to be identified as people that other people didn’t like,” says Potter. All Rights Reserved. Other cities soon followed suit: New Orleans and Cincinnati (Ohio) in 1852; Boston and Philadelphia in 1854; Chicago and Milwaukee (Wis.) in 1855; and Baltimore (Md.) Updated: May 18, 2017 9:45 AM ET | Originally published: May 18, 2017 9:00 AM EDT, You can unsubscribe at any time. Boston was a large shipping commercial center, and businesses had been hiring people to protect their property and safeguard the transport of goods from the port of Boston to other places, says Potter. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Among the first public police forces established in colonial North America were the watchmen organized in Boston in 1631 and in New Amsterdam (later New York City) in 1647. The modern police force started in the early 1900s, but its origins date back to the American colonies. The American response to growing urban unrest was twofold. This situation was exacerbated during Prohibition, leading President Hoover to appoint the Wickersham Commission in 1929 to investigate the ineffectiveness of law enforcement nationwide. The London Metropolitan Police established the first detective branch in 1842; that unit became the Criminal Investigations Department (CID) in 1878. Sign up to receive the top stories you need to know now on politics, health and more, © 2020 TIME USA, LLC. Some of the primary policing institutions there were the slave patrols tasked with chasing down runaways and preventing slave revolts, Potter says; the first formal slave patrol had been created in the Carolina colonies in 1704. Versions of the constable and night-watch system were tried, and voluntary citizens’ groups were encouraged to try to solve urban problems. By signing up you are agreeing to our, Who Should Be TIME’s Person of the Year for 2020? These included systematic surveillance, the enforcement of curfews, and even notions of who could become a police officer. Save on the cover price & free e-Gift card for Giftees! Boston Police watch over the Liberty Bell circa 1903. (Boston started one in 1636, New York followed in 1658 and Philadelphia created one in 1700.) After the Civil War, Southern police departments often carried over aspects of the patrols. Yet, despite the high hopes of reformers when they created police forces, the number of preventable crimes was limited. Fears of labor-union organizers and of large waves of Catholic, Irish, Italian, German, and Eastern European immigrants, who looked and acted differently from the people who had dominated cities before, drove the call for the preservation of law and order, or at least the version of it promoted by dominant interests. Write to Olivia B. Waxman at [email protected]
Class conflict roiled late-19th century American cities like Chicago, which experienced major strikes and riots in 1867, 1877, 1886 and 1894. Investigators usually were former thieftakers or constables who had continued their stipendiary investigative activities after the creation of police departments. The first publicly funded, organized police force with officers on duty full-time was created in Boston in 1838. In areas where a formal justice system had yet to be established or the rudimentary policing apparatus had proved inadequate in the face of rampant crime, it was not uncommon for citizens (called “regulators”) to band together in “committees of vigilance” to combat crime and to introduce order where none existed. As crimes continued to occur, police were pressured into accepting responsibility for investigations and creating detective units. (The irony of this logic, Potter points out, is that the businessmen who maintained this belief were often the ones who profited off of the commercial sale of alcohol in public places.). It would be easy to think that the police officer is a figure who has existed since the beginning of civilization. The investigation of crimes was not a central function of the early preventive police departments in England and the United States. Among the first public police forces established in colonial North America were the watchmen organized in Boston in 1631 and in New Amsterdam (later New York City) in 1647. Middle- and upper-class reformers believed that one of the primary tasks of the police was to reestablish political and social control over a population racked by ethnic and economic rivalries. They then were able to use police to harass opponents of that particular political party, or provide payoffs for officers to turn a blind eye to allow illegal drinking, gambling and prostitution. Night-watch officers were supervised by constables, but that wasn’t exactly a highly sought-after job, either. That’s the idea on display in the proclamation from President John F. Kennedy on the dedication of the week of May 15 as “National Police Week,” in which he noted that law-enforcement officers had been protecting Americans since the nation’s birth. The drive to professionalize the police followed, which means that the concept of a career cop as we’d recognize it today is less than a century old. Premium Membership is now 50% off! In 1838, the city of Boston established the first American police force, followed by New York City in 1845, Albany, NY and Chicago in 1851, New Orleans and Cincinnati in 1853, Philadelphia in 1855, and Newark, NJ and Baltimore in 1857 (Harring 1983, Lundman 1980; Lynch 1984). In general, throughout the 19th century and beyond, the definition of public order — that which the police officer was charged with maintaining — depended whom was asked. All those cities soon reconstructed their investigative units, but significant improvement in the professional conduct of detectives did not occur until well into the 20th century. Excellent text examining the creation of the first police forces, which took place in England and the US in just a few decades in the mid-19th century. For example, people who drank at taverns rather than at home were seen as “dangerous” people by others, but they might have pointed out other factors such as how living in a smaller home makes drinking in a tavern more appealing. During the Civil War, the military became the primary form of law enforcement in the South, but during Reconstruction, many local sheriffs functioned in a way analogous to the earlier slave patrols, enforcing segregation and the disenfranchisement of freed slaves. In the frontier regions of the United States in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, there arose a novel form of the Saxon tradition of frankpledge: the vigilante.