eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'sociologygroup_com-box-3','ezslot_0',193,'0','0']));E.g. Her imposing father kept his distance. To the Inuit people, winning was enjoyable, but their culture valued survival skills essential to their environment: how hard someone tried could mean the difference between life and death. The belief that one’s culture is inferior to another culture is called: 2. North Americans keep more distance and maintain a large “personal space.” Even something as simple as eating and drinking varies greatly from culture to culture. Xeno (Foreign) is the status of a person who is a citizen of a different country. Even the most culturally relativist people from egalitarian societies—ones in which women have political rights and control over their own bodies—would question whether the widespread practice of female genital mutilation in countries such as Ethiopia and Sudan should be accepted as a part of cultural tradition. During her summer vacation, Caitlin flew from Chicago to Madrid to visit Maria, the exchange student she’d befriended the previous semester. However, indiscriminately embracing everything about a new culture is not always possible. There was new food to digest, new daily schedules to follow, and new rules of etiquette to learn. The way cuisines vary across cultures fascinates many people. A high level of appreciation for one’s own culture can be healthy; a shared sense of community pride, for example, connects people in a society. Despite how much humans have in common, cultural differences are far more prevalent than cultural universals. when we judge the taste of the Chinese in eating insects, as ‘gross’ or ‘disgusting’ simply because we are not used to eating such food we are automatically implying that, the food choices or practice of our own culture is more normal than theirs and thus it is better and not ‘disgusting’. We all learn ethnocentrism while growing up, as the practices of our own culture are normalized to us, we automatically tend to start assuming any practice that is not a part of our culture is not normal. (Photo courtesy of OledSidorenko/flickr). A good example of ethnocentrism is referring to parts of Asia as the “Far East.” One might question, “Far east of where?”. We relate to others through a shared set of cultural norms, and ordinarily, we take them for granted. Anthropologist Kalervo Oberg (1960) is credited with first coining the term “culture shock.” In his studies, Oberg found that most people found encountering a new culture to be exciting at first. In sociology, we call this culture shock. In the United States, it’s most likely filled with coffee, not Earl Grey tea, a favorite in England, or Yak Butter tea, a staple in Tibet. An American visiting Italy might long for a “real” pizza or complain about the unsafe driving habits of Italians compared to people in the United States. In some Middle Eastern cultures, it is common to stand close to others in conversation. Sometimes when people attempt to rectify feelings of ethnocentrism and develop cultural relativism, they swing too far to the other end of the spectrum. Someone from a country where dog meat is standard fare might find it off-putting to see a dog in a French restaurant—not on the menu, but as a pet and patron’s companion. Ethnicity is due to one's race or country of origin. And an appreciation for another culture shouldn’t preclude individuals from studying it with a critical eye. For example, Americans tend to say that people from England drive on the “wrong” side of the road, rather than on the “other” side. Maria’s mother kissed Caitlin on both cheeks when she greeted her. Positive and Negative Examples Origin of the Concept and its Study John D. Fullmer - xenocentrism results from an attempt on the part on an individual to correct his or her own ethnocentrism. Likewise, most cultures recognize music in some form. Similarly, high class officers think themselves higher upon other low class servants. But bit by bit, they became stressed by interacting with people from a different culture who spoke another language and used different regional expressions. But ethnocentrism can lead to disdain or dislike for other cultures and could cause misunderstanding and conflict. Almost everyone is a little bit ethnocentric. For this reason, culture shock is often associated with traveling abroad, although it can happen in one’s own country, state, or even hometown. Culture shock may appear because people aren’t always expecting cultural differences. They served wine and toasted their honored guest. Such attitudes are an example of ethnocentrism, or evaluating and judging another culture based on how it compares to one’s own cultural norms. - is a belief in which one's culture is inferior to the other culture. E.g. Most cultures have been found to identify laughter as a sign of humor, joy, or pleasure. In the Western countries, it is normal for girls to wear dresses that are short, skirts, cut sleeve clothes whereas in India, even though now it is coming to be accepted, those wearing such clothes are often judged to have a loose character it is said that girls should always be dressed in clothes covering their body, as this is ideal and thus they must not attempt to copy the west. are superior to others. Xenocentrism is the opposite of ethnocentrism, and refers to the belief that another culture is superior to one’s own. They help people know when to shake hands, where to sit, how to converse, and even when to laugh. Perhaps the greatest challenge for sociologists studying different cultures is the matter of keeping a perspective. And it was nothing like that of her classmate Sanai. Experiencing new cultures offers an opportunity to practice cultural relativism. Ethnocentrism, as sociologist William Graham Sumner (1906) described the term, involves a belief or attitude that one’s own culture is better than all others. She’d studied Spanish in school for years—why hadn’t it prepared her for this?