Furthermore, the problems of a marginal man are not to be faced by the population if the people remain loyal to their own society, culture and group. It is important to point out that consumer ethnocentrism is a global phenomenon; however it differentiates in intercultural and international environments in terms of its intensity and expression. This study investigates the significance and effects of ethnocentrism in the Kenyan society. Heterogeneity and non-linearity are usually extremely hard to analyze using deductive methods. For The Study of Ethnocentrism, Stereotype and Prejudice: Psycho‐Analytical and Psycho‐Dynamic Theories Number 24, 2008 239 and Campbell (1972) suggested that the term ethnocentrism is a relationship of group‐centeredness with self‐centeredness (103). In this master’s thesis, we examine effects of consumer ethnocentrism in France. The usual concept of ethnocentrism combines the belief that one’s culture is superior to other cultures with the practice of judging other cultures as inferior to one’s own culture. At the time of war and other abnormal conditions people are ready to work hard to save their society or culture. ethnocentrism has become commonly used to depict an individual's attitude and emotional reaction to collective symbols of the cultural 'other' (e.g., an ethnic group; Sumner, 1906 in H. Tajfel). The simulation methodology of agent-based modeling, on the other Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Plantation Society, Racism, Politics, Caribbean Region University of Guyana Although ethnocentrism is associated with a negative affect toward outgroups, it can have positive effects on an ingroup identity. Ethnocentrism* Ethnocentrism has a negative influence on the evaluation and purchasing intentions of consumers, although that may vary within cultures and between different country-of-origin products (Jiménez Torres and San Martín Gutiérrez, 2007: 6-7). Ethnocentrism is a special, but almost universal (LeVine and Campbell 1972) example of in-group favoritism and out-group hostility. THE EFFECTS OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN, CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND CONSUMER ANIMOSITY ON PRODUCT PREFERENCE AND WILLINGNESS TO BUY A Study of Urban Adult Chinese Consumers Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of Doctor of Philosophy Qing Shan Ding De Montfort University 15th March 2013 ‘Ethnocentrism encourages Patriotism and loyalty to one’s own society and culture. Ethnocentrism is a form of in- ... effects. Shimp and Sharma (1987) apply ethnocentrism to the study of marketing and Ethnocentrism may be a redirected