Take some time to scan the understory for quick movements and listen for a sharp chip followed by a sweet warble. This warbler received its name from its discovery in Canada, where the majority of its breeding range occurs. [16], The Canada warbler is one of the last birds to arrive at the breeding grounds and one of the first to leave. [24][23] The species has been assessed as "threatened" by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. [20], The Canada warbler eats insects for the most part, including beetles, mosquitoes, flies, moths, and smooth caterpillars such as cankerworms, supplemented by spiders, snails, worms, and, at least seasonally, fruit. The Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) has declined by 71% from 1970 to 2012, at a rate of 2.9% per year, and is listed as Threatened in Canada. During the breeding season the bird "nests in riparian thickets, brushy ravines, forest bogs, etc. [15], Two accidentals have been observed in Europe. In Mode I, used mostly during the day, when unpaired either alone or near a female during early nesting, involves stereotyped songs sung slowly and regularly. During the breeding season 82% of the population can be found in Canada and 18% in the United States. The Canada Warbler is one of the last warblers to arrive in the NWT in the spring and one of the first to leave in the fall. The nests are made up of root masses, hummocks, stumps, stream banks, mossy logs, and sometimes leaf litter and grass clumps. The first a moribund male caught in Sandgerði, Iceland on September 29, 1973. [12], At least 60–65% of the population nests in boreal forests in Canada, the Great Lakes region of the United States, New England and through the Appalachians. [14] Because of its preference for low-height foraging in deciduous forests, it may be bounded at higher elevations as suitable habitat disappears and suffer competition from the black-throated blue warbler which prefers similar habitats. It spends the majority of the nonbreeding season in northern Andean forests, which are among the most threatened in the world, having experienced a 90% loss due to agricultural expansion (cattle, coffee, coca) and fuel wood production. Canada Warblers fly more than 3,000 miles from their wintering grounds in South America to their breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. Distribution. Although female singing among the parulids has long been considered "idiosyncratic," singing by female Canada warblers is supported by observation of female singing in congener Wilson's warbler and the closely related hooded warbler. Look for them in mixed conifer and deciduous forests with a shrubby understory. In the United States the range extends from northern Minnesota to northern Pennsylvania, west to Long Island of New York. [17][7] This conclusion, however, is contradicted by the sexes' wintering at different elevations. Boxplots provide a quick visual of the distribution of the variable importance from the random forest models from all 147 species (black boxplot) and how each species fits into the overall distribution (cyan line). Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis. It also nests in the high Appalachians as far south as Georgia. [21] In the southern part of the breeding range, nest parasitism by cowbirds is frequent. Take some time to scan the understory for quick movements and listen for a sharp chip followed by a sweet warble. The population objectives address the species' long-term decline, which was the reason for its designation as Threatened (COSEWIC 2008). The Canada Warbler inhabits shady forest undergrowth year round, making this species vulnerable to forest loss. The Canada Warbler is a small, brightly coloured songbird 12 to 15 cm in length. Their eyering and black necklace make them one of the easier warblers to ID. [11], In the summer of 1947 a single specimen of Canada warbler from Virginia (and one specimen of another warbler from Georgia) were found to be hosts of a new species of acanthocephalan worm, which was named Apororhynchus amphistomi, the third species of that genus and the first in North America. It spends the majority of the nonbreeding season in northern Andean forests, which are among the most threatened in the world, having experienced a 90% loss due to agricultural expansion (cattle, coffee, coca) and fuel wood production. Summary ; Text account; Data table and detailed info; Distribution map; Reference and further resources; Select View Summary; Text account; Data table and detailed info; Distribution map; Reference and further resources; Current view: summary Family: Parulidae (New World warblers) Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766) Red List Category. [25] The IUCN, however, ranks the Canada warbler as a species of least concern. Roberts described the species’ summer distribution as stretching as far south as northeastern Pine and southern Mille Lacs Counties and as far west as Itasca State Park and Lake of the Woods County. [12] In northern Minnesota a study found that Canada warblers inhabited the shrub-forest edge, rather than marture forests or open fields with shrub. In the winter it prefers mid- and upper-elevation habitats. Predictor Importance for Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis) Relative to All Species. [1], The Canada warbler is protected at the federal level in both Canada and the United States.[18]. The Cornell Lab will send you updates about birds, birding, and opportunities to help bird conservation. The Canada Warbler inhabits shady forest undergrowth year round, making this species vulnerable to forest loss. Because of its wide distribution, all efforts to protect the Canada Warbler must cross borders. [18], The age at which the young leave the nest is not known. On the breeding grounds, dense deer ( Odocoileus … John James Audubon illustrates the Canada warbler in Birds of America (published, London 1827-38) as Plate 73 entitled "Bonaparte's Flycatching-Warbler—Muscicapa bonapartii." The single female (now properly identified as a Canada warbler) is shown perched in a great magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) branch that was painted by Joseph Mason. The original painting was purchased by the New York Historical Society. [12] In the tropics of South America, it forages in mixed flocks with other birds, usually 3–30 feet above ground in denser foliage. Once independent they spend almost all their time in the understory, on the ground or in bushes. Look for a forest patch with a mossy understory filled with ferns, shrubs, and rhododendrons. [11] The post-juvenile bird undergoes a partial moult involving all body feathres and wing coverlets. This may be completed before the first migration. Canada Warblers have been found nesting in the southern NWT, from north of Fort Liard to Kakisa. In the males, the head is bluish with a black forehead and cheeks, which join with a band of well-defined black stripes that run across the breast. [12][11] It employs several foraging tactics, such as flushing insects from foliage and catching them on the wing (which it does more frequently than other warblers),[12] and searching upon the ground among fallen leaves. As with most Nearctic-Neotropical migrants, conservation efforts outside the breeding range are limited by a poor understanding of migration routes and the connectivity between specific breeding and wintering populations. During migration, they flock with other birds including Wilson's Warblers, Tufted Titmice, American Redstarts, and other warblers. Habitat and Biology. Sightings of pairs during migration in Panama have led to the conclusion that they are permanently monogamous. Minnesota Breeding Bird Distribution* The Canada Warbler is an inhabitant of Minnesota’s northern forests. The final, combined image was engraved and colored by Robert Havell Jr. at the Havell workshops in London. They may spend only two months there. Canada Warblers can be a little more difficult to find than other warblers due to their declining populations and northern breeding distribution, but they are not impossible to find.