A diatonic descending-fifths sequence with alternating secondary dominant-seventh chords. Back To Unit 2.1. Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. This leading tone/chordal seventh exchange is essential for proper voice leading in chord progressions that use interlocking seventh chords, such as the sequence above. If it were to traverse the entire octave, the sequence would divide the octave into major seconds. Instead, we identify chromatic scales by the note which they start on. For both C major key signature and A natural minor key signature, there are no sharp or flat notes, so since there is no key signature, we have no clue as to whether to use sharp or flat names to identify any non-natural notes. To play a chromatic scale, simply start on the note of your choice, and then play ALL the semitones until you reach the starting note again. In a sense, we mentally skip over the expected chord to get to the next dominant-seventh chord. Chromaticized diatonic sequences include can include chromatic embellishments or chromatic chords, such as applied (secondary) dominants. C Chromatic scale . (W-H-W-W-W-W-H) The descending formula is the natural minor scale formula backwards. Category 2: embellishing tones that involve a leap. To that point, the pattern of chord roots was a descending minor third followed by an ascending perfect fourth. In Example 3, the second chord of the model is now F7 instead of a diatonic IV chord. When you listen to Example 10, for instance, notice that the D major chord that finishes the sequence hardly sounds like the tonic, even though, nominally, it is. The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen. Because the sequence uses chords entirely from the key of G major, the root progressions don’t match exactly throughout the sequence. B Chromatic Scale Descending. Note that both of these include an inconsistent pattern of intervals between chord roots in the second measure. From beat 1 to beat 2 in m.2, the chord roots are D to Bb–a major third. The final result is a sequence in which the chord on every strong beat is a major triad with roots a major second apart. As you go down you play the same keys, except that some of the notes would be enharmonic equivalents, which means that they are the same keys with different names. Notation of Notes, Clefs, and Ledger Lines, Half- and Whole-steps, Accidentals, and The Black Keys of the Piano, Major Scales, Scale Degrees, and Key Signatures, Minor Scales, Scale Degrees, and Key Signatures, Introduction to Diatonic Modes and the Chromatic "Scale", The Basics of Sight-singing and Dictation, Roman Numerals and SATB Chord Construction, III. The same principle applies to flat-based key signatures, eg. The familiar “Pachelbel” sequence (Example 8) can derive a chromatic sequence in a couple of ways. The diatonic version of this sequence alternates root motion by perfect fourth with either major or minor seconds. 2) Write "two" of each note between the end notes except for C and F. 3) Flatten the 2nd note of each note pair. A diatonic descending thirds sequence. A chromatic descending 5-6 sequence using inverted chords on every weak beat. A chromatic scale (descending) This step gives descending note names to the piano keys identified in step 2. It would become a chromatic sequence. We interpret this as V7 of the chord that follows, which is, in turn, another dominant-seventh chord. Distant modulations such as these are one of the reasons that chromatic sequences can be powerful tools. The sequence would rather quickly bring the music outside of the key of G major, and into new chromatic territory. In cases like this, it is often convenient to also analyze the music using lead-sheet symbols. The notes played in descending order can be called The formula is uncomplicated: all notes are included. Returning to Example 3, notice that the progression of chord roots on each successive strong beat divides the octave equally into major seconds. Furthermore, this kind of voice leading is integral to the study of jazz harmony, as you will find in other parts of this textbook. The white keys are named using the alphabetic letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which is a pattern that repeats up the piano keyboard. For example, we expect to hear either a C-major or C-minor chord following a G7 chord. major scale, or any minor scale), then the key signature will be the guide as to whether to use sharps or flats for the chromatic scale. The diatonic version of this sequence alternates root motion by perfect fourth with either major or minor seconds. Example 9. These sequences avoid strict transposition of both interval size and quality. Using this method, the descending chromatic scale will use the same notes as its ascending scale. Diatonic sequences repeat musical segments and are transposed in a regular pattern within a key. The sequence model, a root progression by descending fifth, is transposed down by second in each subsequent copy of the model. For example, the root progression between the IV and viio chords is an augmented fourth, whereas the root progressions between every other pair of chords is either a perfect fifth or perfect fourth. In fact, you should not really think in terms of there being a root for chromatic scales. [footnote]These hybrid forms come from William Caplin (2013), Analyzing Classical Form. As explained in the above step, since we were working with a scale that has a sharp -based key signature, we will descend the scale using sharp note names. The notes of the C melodic minor scale descending are: C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C (C natural minor scale). Chromatic sequences differ from diatonic sequences in that both the size and quality of the interval of transposition is maintained throughout the sequence. It is also notated so that no scale degree is used more than twice in succession (for instance, G♭ – G♮ – G♯). Chord voicings should match between all corresponding components. The modulation brings the music down a half step from its starting key. A chromaticized diatonic ascending 5-6 sequence, featuring secondary dominant chords. In Example 7, though, the sequence stops once it reaches the E major triad, treats that triad as a dominant chord, and modulates into A major. A chromatic descending 5-6 sequence that modulates from D major to C major. C-sharp Chromatic scale Melodic C Minor Scale Intervals. Since you started on C, you can end on C. But these are the 12 notes that make up the scale. The above examples present the diatonic ascending 5-6 sequence (Example 5) and its chromaticized variant (Example 6). The chromatic scale has no set enharmonic spelling that is always used. C chromatic scale descending But, you can start a chromatic scale on any note, just play the note one semitone (half step) higher until you reach the starting note an octave above. This version of the sequence also uses inverted chords on every weak beat, creating a bass line that descends through the chromatic scale. Fill in the pairs of notes between these cornerstones with the appropriate accidentals. We “cheat” in the sequence in this way in order to keep the music within a single key. To descend you play the note one semitone (half step) lower until you reach your starting note. Example 7. The C chromatic scale would consist of the notes, C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#,A, A# and B. So descending, the fingering is 12 3131 312 3131. Remember, with all sequences, the voice leading must be consistent within every voice. An elided resolution of a dominant-seventh chord. The chromatic scale or twelve-tone scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below its adjacent pitches. Strict Four-Voice Composition, Partimenti, and Schemata, A brief history of basso continuo keyboard-style voice-leading, Tendency tones and functional harmonic dissonances, Generating Roman numerals from a figured bass line, Galant schemas – The Rule of the Octave and Harmonising the Scale with Sequences, Foundational Concepts for Phrase-level Forms, Expansion and Contraction at the Phrase Level, V. Diatonic Harmony, Tonicization, and Modulation, Introduction to Harmony, Cadences, and Phrase Endings, Strengthening Endings with Strong Pre-dominants, Prolonging Tonic at Phrase Beginnings with V6 and Inverted V7s, Performing Harmonic Analysis Using the Phrase Model, Prolongation at Phrase Beginnings using the Leading-tone Chord, La (scale degree 6) in the bass at beginnings, middles, and endings, Mi (scale degree 3) in the bass at beginnings, Diatonic Sequences in Middles (in progress--no examples yet), Extended Tonicization and Modulation to Closely Related Keys, Introduction to Harmonic Schemas in Pop Music, Pitch Class Sets, Normal Order, and Transformations, Analyzing with Modes, Scales, and Collections, Consider the following two-chord sequence (Example 1), often referred to as the “descending-fifths sequence.”.